What you’re thinking about is not white balance but rather, exposure. White balance is more tuned towards the rendition of colour in the scene based on the lighting being provided, not whether the scene has blown highlights or dark areas.
Exposure is what you are referring to, or perhaps the metering used to determine the proper exposure settings. In that case, I would assume they are using either centre weighted (biased towards middle while still taking entire frame into account) or matrix (average of the whole scene).
I don’t know of any IP camera that allows you to set a specific area of the scene as the one to measure and set the exposure to.
Adjusting the brightness will also affect areas of darkness.
There is a limitation and difference in what the human eye can see, in terms of bright/dark, compared to camera sensors.
Sometimes, the best thing you can do is move the camera to an area where it can get proper exposure, or adjust the view on the camera . Is that a possibility?