I am not an Engineer, but I have friends that are The format/do not format debate is full of misinformation. This is how it was explained to me.
First of all SD cards do not physically suffer from fragmentation like magnetic storage media does. The access time for any gate on the card is identical, there are no moving parts so no penalty for non contiguous storage or access.
Second “Erasing vs Formatting”, Erasing files from a card like on a magnetic drive simply marks the gates used by the file as available again. Formatting or as us old timers call it Low Level Formatting physically resets each gate to its default state and tests the gate for responsiveness and ability to accept and hold a state. This is why its slower.
For cameras its called “initialize” the card. And what exactly that means varies from camera to camera vendor and even model. For some it means erase the card, for others it means format the card.
My personal practice is to “format” each card in the device it is going to be used in when its first installed and then let the device manage the card. If a card develops errors (They all eventually will) I replace the card immediately. They are relatively inexpensive and usually when errors appear its a short time before they proliferate.
Some folks format cards in a computer first then move them to the device. Its personal preference I have never personally needed to do that. In a continuous recording scenario like I use in my Wyze cameras I have typically gone 1 to 2 years before I see problems develop.
So I don’t have a clear cut answer for you. I spoke with an Engineer at a card manufacturer at length once (We had dinner together at a trade show) he said there was no benefit to periodically formatting a card from an electrical engineering viewpoint.
So as they say YMMV but usually I keep a few spares around and otherwise let nature and electricity take its course.